Belgian Tax reform – Entities – Companies
Latest update: 18 January 2019
On 24 July 2018, the federal government reached a social and labour related “summer agreement” (commonly referred to as the “jobs deal”) containing a number of tax measures, such as changes to employers’ tax reporting obligations for certain equity incentives (see the “Individuals” section of our website) and the acceleration of the entry into force of the 30% EBITDA rule from 2020 to 2019. Following this agreement and according to the General Policy Memorandum of 29 October 2018, new tax measures notably against tax fraud have been announced, some of which have already been submitted to the Chamber of Representatives (the “Chamber”, see below).
In 2019, the second step of the corporate income tax reform is to enter into force, being the tax consolidation, the limitation of the interest deduction rule, and the CFC rules (see further, under “Measures 2019”). Below follows a detail of the other measures provided by the Corporate Income Tax Reform Act and by the Act of 30 July 2018 on Various Income Tax Provisions (Official Gazette of 10 August 2018), hereinafter referred to as “amending law”, which amends and supplements the Corporate Income Tax Reform Act and the Program Act.
New measures announced
Draft law providing tax, fight-against-fraud, financial and various other measures (adopted the Finance Commission)
This draft law would introduce provisions on the following (non-limitative description):
- 30% EBITDA rule: the effective date is expected to be set at 1 January 2019.
- Reporting and withholding obligations : if Belgian employees are granted free shares or benefits (e.g. Restricted Stocks, Restricted Stock Units, …) by the foreign parent company, such grant would become reportable by the Belgian subsidiary to the Belgian tax authorities and trigger a withholding tax obligation as from 2019
- Legal constructions: where the taxpayer used legal constructions, the assessment and investigation periods are expected to be extended to ten years.
- Rulings: decisions can no longer be issued on transactions or situations related to a tax haven that is not cooperative with the OECD or to a country that is mentioned on the list of States with low or no taxation except if this country exchanges information with Belgium.
- Exchange of information with third countries : in order for Belgium to meet its international obligations and to act in accordance with the OECD standards, the exchange of information on the “ultimate beneficial owner” register would be extended to include jurisdictions outside the EU with whom there is a legal basis for exchange of information with Belgium.
Draft law containing measures to combat tax fraud and tax evasion with respect to withholding tax (adopted by the Chamber)
First, the draft law would provide that the beneficiary of the movable income (interest, dividends, etc.) becomes liable for the payment of the withholding tax (“WHT”) when it has benefited from either an unlawful WHT exemption (this was already applicable in the case of misrepresentation) or an unlawful WHT refund. In particular, from a procedural perspective, it will now be possible for the Belgian tax authorities to obtain the tax due from the beneficiary via a tax assessment (“rôle”/“kohier”) instead of having to go to the civil court.
Second, to avoid situations of double refund, the granting of a WHT refund would be subject to the condition that the applicant was the legal owner of the securities concerned on the date when the holders of rights were identified for a given corporate action.
Finally, some specific provisions would be applicable to pension funds regarding “short-term shareholdings”. The draft law would notably provide for a rebuttable presumption of non-genuine holding where a pension fund does not hold the shares in full ownership during at least 60 days. In other words, in order to benefit from a WHT exemption or refund with respect to shareholdings held for less than 60 days, Belgian and foreign pension funds will now have to evidence that there is no underlying artificial construction (reversal of the burden of proof). Practically speaking, the relief at source on short-term shareholdings is likely to be impaired.
The new rules would enter into force on the date when the law is published in the Official Gazette.
Draft law adapting certain federal tax provisions to the new Companies and Associations Code (adopted by the Finance Commission)
A substantial reform of the Belgian Companies Code, which should lead to the adoption of the new (Belgian) Companies and Associations Code, is currently under review at the Chamber. This draft law would for example reduce the number of types of companies while providing for the abolition of the notion of capital (except for the “société anonyme”/“naamloze vennootschap”). It would also consolidate the switch from the “head office” theory (effective place of management) to the “registered seat” theory, i.e. the seat as set down in the company’s articles of association.
Therefore, adjustments to federal-level tax provisions are needed. The objective is to ensure the fiscal neutrality without changes to substance (save for exceptions).
The draft law would identify companies with corporate capital (such as the “société anonyme”/“naamloze vennootschap”) and companies without capital. It would also include a new definition of the notions of capital and paid-up capital. The notion of “capital” would refer to a company’s equity as it is determined under the Belgian or foreign legislation to which the company concerned is subject to the extent that it is formed by contributions in cash or in kind other than industrial inputs.
As regards the company’s nationality, from a tax point of view, the rule would remain the rule of the “real seat” whereas the general rule in company law would become the “registered office” (“siège statutaire”/“statutaire zetel”). Consequently, new definitions of “companies”, “resident companies” (combined with a rebuttable presumption to avoid situations of double non-residence) and “foreign companies” would be introduced in the Belgian Income Tax Code. Changes would also be made with regard to repurchases of own shares, mergers, demergers and other restructuring operations. Foreign companies or any taxable person receiving profits via a Belgian establishment would also incur new accounting obligations (exemptions could be provided for by Royal Decree).
Royal Decree of 21 November 2018 modifying the definition of legal constructions with legal personality subject to the Cayman Tax (Official Gazette of 3 December 2018)
The so-called ‘Cayman Tax’, introduced on 1 January 2015, is a taxation regime in the Belgian Income Tax Code that introduces tax transparency required of certain legal constructions set up by Belgian private individual tax residents. These individuals will be taxed directly, as if they had received the income directly, on the income derived from certain qualifying entities. In this respect, a distinction is made between 3 categories of legal structures: (i) trusts and other structures without legal personality (type 1), (ii) foreign entities with legal personality that are subject to an effective tax rate of less than 15% calculated in accordance with the rules of Belgian income tax law (type 2) while (iii) a legal construction type 1 or type 2 wrapped up in an agreement will be considered as a type 3 legal construction (type 3). In this respect, the legal structures of type 2 have been listed in two Royal Decrees dated 18 December 2015 (exhaustive list of entities within the European Economic Area – “EEA”) and 23 August 2015 (non-exhaustive list of entities outside the EEA).
Three categories of legal constructions
The new Royal Decree now introduces three categories of legal constructions within the EEA that will be considered as legal constructions that may fall within the scope of the Cayman Tax going forward:
- investment vehicles (private UCIs and AIFs) that are held by one individual or several individuals who are related to each other, including SICAV-SIFs;
- entities that are not transparent for Belgian income tax purposes, but that are tax transparent in the jurisdiction within the EEA where they are established. However, entities are also not considered transparent if the shareholders pay, in the country where the company concerned is established, tax of at least 1% of the income realized in the residence state (to be determined in accordance with the Belgian income tax rules) ;
- entities with legal personality established in the EEA and which are not subject to income tax or are subject to income tax that is less than 1% of the taxable income realised (as determined under the Belgian income tax law rules). This 1% threshold will only be applicable to entities that do not fall within the scope of category 1 or 2 (priority rule).
The entities as defined under 2 and 3 are not considered to be legal constructions in the case that the income derived by the legal construction would be exempted from Belgian income tax under the applicable double tax treaty if the Belgian tax resident founder of the legal construction had received the income directly.
The Royal Decree will apply to income received, granted or made payable by legal constructions as from 1 January 2018.
Corporate Income Tax Reform Act of 25 December 2017 (Official Gazette of 29 December 2017)
Corporate income tax rate
The standard corporate income tax rate of 33% is lowered to 29% in 2018 and to 25% as from 2020. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) will see a decrease in the rate to 20% as from 2018 for the first bracket of EUR 100,000 in profit. These rates are to be increased with the crisis tax, which is also lowered for 2018 and will be abolished in 2020.
|Old corporate income tax rate||33%||33%|
|New corporate income tax rate||29%||25%|
|SMEs (first bracket of EUR 100.000)||20%||20%|
|Former crisis tax||3%||3%|
|New crisis tax||2%||0%|
Measures for 2018
- The 95% dividends-received deduction (DRD) is increased to 100%, resulting in a full participation exemption.
- The separate 0.412% capital gains tax for multinational enterprises on qualifying shares is abolished, while the conditions to benefit from the capital gains exemption are brought in line with the DRD. This implies the application of a minimum participation threshold of at least 10% or an acquisition value of at least EUR 2.5 million in the capital of the distributing company.
- Capital gains on shares whose dividends partly entitle to the DRD regime are also partially exempted (DRD-SICAVs/BEVEKs, SIRs/GVVs etc.). Specific rules apply to capital gains after a restructuring.
- In a nutshell, in 2018 and 2019, capital gains on shares are:
- exempted provided that all the conditions are met;
- taxed at 25.5% if the one-year holding period requirement is not met;
- taxed at 29.58% if the participation condition or taxation condition is not met.
- As from 2020, capital gains on shares are:
- taxed at the standard rate (25%) if one condition is not met.
- also exempted when all the conditions are met
- The wage withholding tax exemption for scientific research personnel is extended to include holders of a bachelor’s degree. The exemption is applicable for up to 40% of this wage withholding tax as from 1 January 2018, and for up to 80% as from 1 January 2020.
- The notional interest deduction (NID) is maintained, but, as from 2018, it is calculated based on the incremental equity (over a period of five years) and no longer on the total amount of the company’s qualifying equity. Simplified, the incremental equity equals one-fifth of the positive difference between the equity as at the beginning of the taxable period and that as at the beginning of the fifth preceding taxable period. The current rules on equity formation and exclusions as well as on stock of carry-forward NID remain applicable. The rate is the rate of the financial year to which the tax return relates. An anti-abuse measure is introduced by the amending law to tackle the contribution in capital made by an affiliated company by means of borrowed funds. Two other specific anti-abuse provisions are added in order to exclude from the calculation base the receivables from and the capital contributions by a non-resident taxpayer or a PE situated in a country that does not exchange information with Belgium, except if the company can prove that the concerned operations meet lawful financial or economic needs. Finally, the amending law provides for the application of the continuity principle in case of contribution of one or more branches of activity or universality of goods (as it is in case of mergers, demergers, etc.).
- To finance these new measures, a minimum tax charge is imposed on companies making profits of more than one million euros by limiting the number of corporate tax deduction items (“tax attributes”). Also a new order of deduction applies (see below). As from 2018, deduction items outside the basket are fully deductible. Deduction items within the basket can only be claimed on 70% of profits exceeding the one-million threshold. The remaining 30% of profits are fully taxable at the above new rate. The tax attributes concerned are the deduction of carry-forward tax losses (CF losses), carry-forward dividends-received deduction (CF DRD), carry-forward innovation income deduction (CF IID) and carry-forward notional interest deduction (CF NID) as well as the new incremental NID. Deduction for investments (whether general or innovation related) is excluded. The new rules do not apply to losses incurred by SMEs starters.
- The current limited deduction of prior-year losses in the framework of a tax-neutral reorganisation also applies to the CF DRD. The amending law provides that this provision is applicable to operations executed as from 1 January 2018.
- Minimum company director fee: SMEs can benefit from the reduced corporate income tax rate on the first bracket of EUR 100,000 if certain conditions are met. In this regard, the company must grant to at least one company director (natural person) a fee of minimum EUR 45,000 (instead of EUR 36,000) or possibly lower, depending on the taxable income. Exceptions are available for SME start-ups. In order to prevent any abuse, a distinct taxation of 5% (as from 2018) is due by each company (large or small) that does not grant the minimum fee. The amending law specifies that the director receiving the minimum fee has to be a natural person. The tax is due on the difference between the highest compensation actually paid and the required amount, and is deductible. For affiliated companies of which at least half of the directors are the same people, the total amount of the minimum director fee has to be EUR 75,000. Exceptions are also provided for SME start-ups.The above measure is applicable for corporate income tax purposes. The amending law, however, extends its application to non-resident income tax/companies. Moreover, the distinct taxation will be increased in the case of no or insufficient tax prepayments (amending law).
- SMEs benefit from an increase in the investment deduction from 8% to 20% for the next 2 years (assessment years 2019 and 2020) for asset acquired or created between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2019.
- Reimbursements of paid-up capital: the reimbursement of capital is deemed to derive proportionally from paid-up capital and from taxed reserves (incorporated and non-incorporated into capital) and exempted reserves incorporated into capital. The reduction of capital will be allocated to paid-up capital in the proportion of the paid-up capital in the total capital increased with certain reserves. The portion allocated to reserves is deemed to be a dividend and becomes subject to withholding tax (if applicable). Share premium distributions are submitted to the same system. Exempted reserves not incorporated into capital continue to be outside the scope of the rule. Some elements, such as (but not limited to) revaluation surpluses, provisions for liabilities and charges, and unavailable reserves, have to be withdrawn from the reserves taken into account for the coefficient calculation. A sequence of allocation has been set for situations where the amount of the paid-up capital and sums being treated as capital are insufficient. This change is applicable to capital reductions decided by general meetings held on or after 1 January 2018
- Pre-paid costs have to be deducted in the year of payment in the proportion of the part of the charge that relates to this accounting year (application of the accounting matching principle). It is then no longer possible to shift costs that will only be made in the future to the current year in order to reduce the tax charge on the current-year profits
- Provisions for risks and charges are only deductible for tax purposes if:
- they correspond to an existing and known obligation at year-end closing (in addition to the other conditions already existing)
- they result from any contractual, legal or regulatory obligation (other than those resulting merely from the application of the law on accounting rules and annual accounts). This change does not apply to existing provisions created before assessment year 2019.
- Other measures to apply as from 2018 include (without being limited to) the removal of the investment reserve system and a change to the capital gains tax for which spread taxation was requested but for which the re-investment did not take place within the legal deadline or in compliance with the legal conditions: such capital gains will be taxed at the nominal rate applicable in the year in which the capital gain is realised.
- Further to the 100% DRD, the special Tate & Lyle withholding tax rate is replaced by a withholding tax exemption.
Compliance related measures (as from 2018)
- Tax supplements resulting from a tax audit will effectively become due, without the possibility to offset these supplements against, for instance, current-year losses. It will, however, remain possible to claim the DRD of the current financial year. Such tax supplements will constitute a minimum tax base. This measure only applies if tax penalties equal to or higher than 10% are effectively applied. In other words, questions of principle would normally be outside the scope of this new rule.
- Companies will be encouraged to make more tax prepayments. The basic interest rate increases to 3% (instead of 1%). The increase will always be applied as from 2018. The rate of the tax increase with regard to advance payments will be 6.75% in assessment year 2019.
- In the absence of a corporate tax return, the minimum taxable lump sum amounts to EUR 34,000 from 2018, and to 40,000 from 2020 (instead of currently EUR 19,000). It will be indexed on an annual basis. In the event of repeated infringements, the minimum taxable lump sum increases from 25% to 200% (from the fifth infringement). The taxpayer may always produce evidence to the contrary.
- The default interest and late payment interest systemhas been reviewed. Late payment interest amounts to minimum 4% (and maximum 10%). The default interest rate is 2% lower than the late payment interest rate. These rates are linked to the OLO interest rate and will then be adapted on an annual basis according to the latter rate. The default interest rate is due as from the first day of the month following the month of the formal notice and provided that the taxpayer has actually paid the tax.
Measures for 2019
- For the first time in Belgian income tax history, tax consolidation will be introduced as from assessment year 2020, i.e. years starting 1 January 2019 or later. In practice, Belgian companies will be able to transfer taxable profits to other Belgian affiliated companies with the aim to offset these profits against current-year tax losses. This transfer has been coined “deduction of the group contribution”. In the end, the group companies will compensate each other for the tax burden of the group contribution, as a result of which the tax consolidation will be financially neutral. The scope of the consolidation regime is limited to certain qualifying companies:
- a 90% direct shareholding between the companies (or via the EEA parent company) during the entire assessment year is required, limiting the scope to the parent, subsidiary and sister companies and their Belgian permanent establishments;
- the measure is limited to group companies that have been affiliated for at least the last five successive calendar years;
- some companies such as investment companies and regulated real estate companies (SIRs/GVVs) are excluded.
In order to benefit from this new system of tax consolidation, the group companies concerned have to conclude a “group contribution agreement” that meets the following conditions (that have to be effectively put in place):
- the agreement covers a specific assessment year;
- it has to mention the amount of the group contribution;
- the receiving resident company or permanent establishment (PE) commits to report the amount of the group contribution in its tax return (corporate income tax or non-resident income tax) as included in the profits of the assessment year (no deduction other than the current-year loss can be claimed against the amount of the group contribution; in this regard, the amending law provides that no deduction can be made on the part of the intragroup transfer that would exceed the current-year loss);
- the taxpayer commits to pay the receiving resident company or PE a compensation corresponding to the additional tax that would have been due if the group contribution had not been deducted from the profits of the assessment year;
- the agreement is filed together with the tax returns of the entities concerned (each entity is still required to file its individual tax return).
The group contribution is deductible from the taxpayer’s profits of the assessment year provided that the profit is effectively included in the tax return of the receiving company and provided that the compensation has actually been paid (proof should be provided if requested).Under similar conditions it will in practice also be possible to deduct final losses of a foreign subsidiary under the consolidation regime. However, a recapture rule of the final losses is introduced when the activities are restarted within the period of three years in the foreign country.The amending law provides for an anti-abuse measure in the case of reorganisation. According to this provision, a merged company can only qualify for the consolidation if all individual companies were qualifying companies before the merger.
- The Corporate Income Tax Reform Act implements the European Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives I and II (Council Directive EU 2016/1164 of 12 July 2016 and Council Directive EU 2017/952 of 29 May 2017). The implementation of the measures (i.e. CFCs, exit taxation, hybrid mismatches and the interest limitation rule) will take effect in 2019.
- Under the new CFC rules, certain non-distributed income of a CFC will become taxable in Belgium at the level of the Belgian controlling taxpayer. A CFC is a low-taxed foreign company (or foreign PE) of which a Belgian taxpayer (alone or together with its associated enterprises) holds directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting rights or the capital or is entitled to receive more than 50% of the profits of that entity. In addition, the CFC either is not subject to income tax under the applicable rules of its residence State or is subject to income tax that is less than half of the corporate income tax of the CFC computed based on Belgian rules.Based on the so-called transactional approach, non-distributed income of the CFC arising from (a series of) non-genuine arrangements put in place for the essential purpose of obtaining a tax advantage becomes taxable. This is the case to the extent that the CFC would not own the assets or would not have assumed the risks that generate all or part of its income if it had not been controlled by a company where the significant people functions that are relevant to those assets and risks are carried out and are instrumental in generating the CFC’s income. Income that is not generated by assets or risks linked to the significant people functions carried out by the controlling company is out of scope. Measures to avoid double taxation are provided via a 100% DRD for distributed income or, as it is introduced by the amending law, for non-exempt capital gains when the CFC is transferred provided that the income has already been subject to tax under the Belgian CFC rules.The CFC rule will enter into force as from an assessment year 2020 that is linked to a taxable period that starts, at the earliest, on 1 January 2019.The amending law introduces an obligation for the taxpayer to report the existence of a CFC whose profits are taxable in its hands. The same reporting obligation is extended to the existence of a permanent establishment whose profits are not attributed to this permanent establishment.
- The exit taxation rules are further completed by covering all transactions referred to in the ATAD I Directive (e.g. transfers of assets from head office to PE) and by imposing a step-up in the case of an inbound transfer from another Member State or from third countries provided that the gain has been subject to tax in the exit State and Belgium has concluded with the exit State a bilateral treaty or a bilateral or multilateral instrument that allows for an exchange of information.The Act of 1 December 2016 already introduced the option to defer the exit taxation over 5 years and the possibility to request a guarantee (without interest) (see existing art. 413/1 of the Income Tax Code (ITC)).The new exit taxation rules will enter into force on 1 January 2019 for transfers taking place on or after 1 January 2019.
- A series of rules and definitions is inserted in Belgian tax legislation to tackle hybrid mismatches, tax residency mismatches and imported mismatches in line with the ATAD II Directive.These new hybrid measures will enter into force as from an assessment year 2020 that is linked to a taxable period that starts, at the earliest, on 1 January 2019.
- A new interest limitation rule is introduced on the basis of article 4 of the ATAD I Directive (“30% EBITDA rule”).
- This new rule must be computed at the level of each taxpayer (Belgian company or PE). Three types of taxpayers are out of scope: financial undertakings, standalone entities, and public private partnerships. According to the amending law, the list of financial undertakings out of scope includes leasing and factoring companies (the latter must be operating “within the financial sector”), as well as companies which main activity is the financing of real estate through the issuance of real estate certificates.
- The exceeding borrowing costs are computed on a net basis and they take into account payments economically equivalent to interest (exact guidance still to be communicated – based on the Directive). Three types of loans are outside the scope of the exceeding borrowing cost computation: loans granted before 17 June 2016 without “fundamental modification” (grandfathering rule – still subject to old 5:1 thin cap rule), loans in relation to public-private co-operation projects, and loans granted between Belgian entities that are part of the same group.
- The law offers a mechanical rule to compute the tax EBITDA, which starts from the result of the taxable period after the first operation.
- For each taxpayer, exceeding borrowing costs will be deductible up to the highest amount of 30% tax EBITDA or EUR 3 million (= de minimis/safe harbour rule – EUR 3 million to be allocated across Belgian group entities – exact guidance still to be communicated). Disallowed exceeding borrowing costs can be carried forward without time limit. Alternatively, the amending law provides for a transfer of “deduction capacity” to another Belgian group entity (while the current law provides for a transfer of exceeding borrowing costs). This must be analyzed in conjunction with the new consolidation regime. Disallowed exceeding borrowing costs are not part of the tax base as set in article 185bis, which means that the companies taxed on this basis (e.g. regulated investment companies or regulated real estate companies) are de facto out of scope.
Although this measure would only enter into force as from 2020, the Belgian government decided in July 2018 that it would advance the entry into force to 2019 (assessment year 2020 that is linked to a taxable period that starts, at the earliest, on 1 January 2019).
Measures for 2020
- Permanent establishments (PE):
- The PE definition in Belgian legislation has been modified in line with the OECD/BEPS guidelines containing a more economic PE concept. Although the domestic PE definition is mainly relevant for non-treaty situations, this modification will ensure that national legislation does not create an obstacle if and when the new PE concept is introduced in Belgium’s double tax treaties. The definition of Belgian PE includes commissionaires or similar companies that act in their own name but which are closely connected with a foreign company. The PE definition will be further adjusted in line with BEPS Action 1 (Digital economy) and related ongoing EU actions.
- The deduction of foreign PE losses by a Belgian head office will going forward only be granted for final PE losses from within the EEA. PE losses are final when the PE’s activities have been terminated and to the extent that these losses are not deducted from other income in the PE State (e.g. income from other entities or in the framework of a tax consolidation). The possibility of recapture is introduced for deducted final PE losses in the event that the Belgian company would restart activities in the PE State within three years after the PE’s closure.
- Discounts on long-term debts related to non-depreciable assets will no longer be deductible.
- Company cars: the tax reform also aims – once more – to strengthen the rules on the tax charge applied to company cars for Belgian companies. In general, under the current system, the deductibility rate of car costs for Belgian companies and Belgian PEs varies in a range of between 50% and 120% of the costs, depending on the type (fuel) and CO2 emission of the company car. The deduction for fuel costs is set at 75%.These rules change as follows:
- The deductibility rate of car costs is linked to the actual CO2 emission level of the car and will range between 50% and 100% according to the following formula: 120% – (0.5% x coefficient x gr CO2/km). The coefficient is 1 for vehicles running on diesel, and is 0.95 for vehicles with a different engine. For highly-polluting cars, the deductibility will be limited to 40%. A highly-polluting car is a car with a CO2 emission of 200 grams or more.
- Under the current rules, car costs for so-called ‘fake’ hybrid cars (rechargeable hybrid cars) can easily be deductible at 90 or 100% because of the posted low CO2 emission level. According to the new rules, ‘fake’ hybrid cars are vehicles with a fuel engine and a rechargeable electric battery with an energy capacity lower than 0.5 kWh per 100 kg of vehicle weight, or with a CO2 emission level of more than 50 gr/km. Under the new rules, the deductibility and tax charge on the corresponding benefit in kind are aligned to the tax treatment of its non-hybrid counterpart. By lack of corresponding car, the CO2 emission value will be multiplied by 2.5. The current system continues to apply to hybrid cars acquired before 1 January 2018.
- The deduction for fuel costs is no longer fixed (at 75%) but will also be linked to the CO2 emission of the car.
- Costs in relation to electric cars are only deductible up to 100% instead of 120%.
- Exceptions to the limited deductibility will be available for taxi services, rental cars with drivers, driving schools and vehicles leased only to third parties. The limited deductibility is also inapplicable to taxpayers who re-invoice the car costs to a third party.
- Limited deduction of other business expenses such as fines and taxes: all administrative fines imposed by a public authority become disallowed expenses even if they do not qualify as a criminal penalty or if they are related to deductible taxes. Increases related to social security contributions also become disallowed expenses. The distinct tax charge on secret commissions is no longer deductible. Hidden profits are no longer reincorporated into the corporate accounts, and the reduced rate applicable in this case is abolished. Other costs deductible at a rate of 120% are deductible up to 100%.
- Other measures that will only become effective in 2020 concern notably the possibility to convert exempted reserves (created before 2017) into taxed reserves at a favourable tax rate, and changes in the depreciation regime: the double-declining balance method will be abolished and, as with large enterprises, for the year of investment,SMEs will only be entitled to apply a prorated deduction.